# Protection against Message Forward in Objective-C

### A Brief Review

Runtime is one of the powerful features of Objective-C, it provides us the ability to add/replace a method of some class, retrieve/set the implementation of a specified method, and even add a class in runtime.

However, just like the sunlight shines not only on the good guys, but also on the bad ones. There are some tools in iOS Jailbreak community which take the advantage of Objective-C's runtime feature, to be specific, the ability of message forward. Within this feature, they can log the calling sequence of the methods in the application for further exploitation. And it's not that hard to inject such tools into your application, since there are many ways such as DYLD_INSERT_LIBRARIES or modifying the MachO load commands, and they got some sets of tools like iOSOpenDev, and the new replacement of iOSOpenDev, MonkeyDev by @AloneMonkey.

And there're at least 2 tools which can log the calling sequence of the methods,

# IEEE 802.11 Denial-of-Service: Deauthentication Attack

802.11 - 2012 标准 8.2.4.1.3 Type and Subtype fields 下面，列举了所有有效的 MAC 帧的 type 与 subtype 的组合，这里我们关注的 deauthentication 是 type 为 management 的帧。

Type valueb3 b2 Typedescription Subtype valueb7 b6 b5 b4 Subtype description
00 Management ... ...
00 Management 1100 Deauthentication
00 Management ... ...